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A Closer Look at the ‘Free’ in FOSS

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When the concept of free and open source software was first introduced there was a lot of debate regarding what ‘free’ actually meant.

For a lot of people ‘free’ meant what it always meant, which is without any price or payment. In this case however, it also meant that the source code was open to anyone who wanted to see it and understand the software better, and even make changes to it.

Fast forward to today and most people already know, understand and accept what the ‘free’ in FOSS really means because of this well-worn statement: free as in speech, not free as in beer.

But is that all that ‘free’ really means in FOSS?

Updating the Definition

One of the driving principles behind making software free and open source was the idea that the more people there are looking at the code, the better. More people meant more eyes could see the ins and outs of the source code, and that meant bugs could get spotted quicker. As the years progressed however, it appeared that this was not always the case. Why? Because most people were not actually looking at the code, understanding it and making it better. Some people who use open source code aren’t even coders– they simply come in and take what they need and leave. So even as the number of open source users increased, the number of people actually improving the source code remained the same and even decreased due to overload and burnout.

This phenomenon may be an unavoidable consequence of FOSS being free, but that doesn’t mean it’s one we should propagate. To counteract this phenomenon it’s necessary to update the current definition of ‘free’ in FOSS and add that it is also ‘free as in puppy.’

Free As In Puppy

This statement, while seemingly lighthearted carries with it a serious connotation. It accurately presents what ‘free’ should be in FOSS right now. Like those cute and furry little creatures, open source projects start off as appealing and easy to procure. Once you take them home however, you need to take responsibility for them. You need to take care of them, feed them, exercise and clean up after them. While you may not have to do the exact same things with open source software, the sense of responsibility is the same. Once you pick up open source software you need to be responsible for keeping it updated, contributing to and nurturing the community that goes along with it.

Free As In Mattress

Another relevant issue plaguing open source today is its lack of security. In response to this Tech journalist Mary Branscombe adds another relevant definition of FOSS: free as in mattress. Not the one you find in a store mind you, but one that’s leaning up against a wall, in an old abandoned room or beside a dumpster somewhere. Anyone can take it home– but the question is, would you really want to without knowing where it came from?

This definition of ‘free’ stresses the fact that open source code must always undergo a vetting process. This process will ensure that open source code is high quality, always up-to-date, secure and working as it should.

There can be many other definitions of ‘free’ in FOSS, some truer and more relevant than others. It’s important for us to keep analyzing and updating the meaning of ‘free’ in FOSS, as it has a significant effect on how the field of FOSS develops as a whole.

The post A Closer Look at the ‘Free’ in FOSS appeared first on SourceForge Community Blog.

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12 days ago
Cluj-Napoca, România
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Nutrients Per Calorie – Math Proves The Healthiest Lowest Calorie Foods

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Thinking of turning this into a newsletter since getting user contributions. Let me know what you think of this format.

Efficiency Memes. The Efficiency Memes from Facebook have been uploaded!

Entrepreneur and Engineer, Dan Engerer has been doing Triphasic sleep for over a year. This saves him 20 hours a week.

Sign Up Free for the 2 hour workout/week. This is how me and Misses Efficiency get our bods.

From idea to completion. Sewed Misses Efficiency a dress.

Interested In Nutrient Dense Food? You arent alone.

Matt commented on 10-6-17 that he wanted to see this augmented nutrition per dollar with mass.

The Nutrition Per Dollar table has been updated to include this measurement. You can download the raw data here.

Instead of dozens of pictures, if you are curious how to get the most vitamin A per Calorie, use the excel file and sort.

The Math- Dividing By Max To Remove Dimensions

The units were a bit daunting, ie: (micrograms of Folate Per gram of food)

We removed the dimensions-

Rank= Nutrient Per Gram / Best(max) Nutrient Per Gram

For example:

We then add the nutrients that the USDA provided. Summed up…

Nutrients Per Gram Ranked

This is probably most useful for hikers who are trying to limit the weight of food.

Nutrients Per Calorie Ranked

This was my real fascination, what are the most nutrient dense foods per calorie?

This is what many people would consider ‘The Healthiest Foods’.


Fresh Green Veggies top the list of highest Nutrients Per Calorie.

Peanuts and Almonds are relatively light weight and are packed with Nutrients.

Fortified foods like Cereal and Flour scored high in Nutrient Per Gram, but low in Nutrient Per Calorie.

Anything shown on the list is in the top 30% of foods studied, if your goal is to maximize, consume more foods on the list.

Draw Your Own Conclusions With The Raw Excel Data

Let me know what you think of this newsletter format.

Did you like a short article with lots of data? Or should I include more conclusions? Did you like having new content before the main article?

The post Nutrients Per Calorie – Math Proves The Healthiest Lowest Calorie Foods appeared first on Efficiency Is Everything.

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24 days ago
Cluj-Napoca, România
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How to write ISO image to USB drive in Linux - Tutorial

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I've written a tutorial explaining how to write ISO image files to a USB drive in Linux, covering Etcher, Unetbootin and Fedora Media Writer tools, dd, raw USB boot testing via QEMU/KVM, suggestions for Windows users, other tips and tricks, and more. Take a look.
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44 days ago
Cluj-Napoca, România
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Polyinstantiating /tmp and /var/tmp directories


On Linux systems, the /tmp/ and /var/tmp/ locations are world-writable. They are used to provide a common location for temporary files and are protected through the sticky bit, so that users cannot remove files they don't own from the directory, even though the directory itself is world-writable. Several daemons/applications use the /tmp or /var/tmp directories to temporarily store data, log information, or to share information between their sub-components. However, due to the shared nature of these directories, several attacks are possible, including:

Polyinstantiation of temporary directories is a proactive security measure which reduces chances of attacks that are made possible by /tmp and /var/tmp directories being world-writable.

Setting Up Polyinstantiated Directories

Configuring polyinstantiated directories is a three-step process (this example assumes that a Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 system is used):

First, create the parent directories which will hold the polyinstantiation child directories. Since in this case we want to setup polyinstantiated /tmp and /var/tmp, we create /tmp-inst and /var/tmp/tmp-inst as the parent directories.

$ sudo mkdir --mode 000 /tmp-inst
$ sudo mkdir --mode 000 /var/tmp/tmp-inst

Creating these directories with mode 000 ensures that no users can access them directly. Only polyinstantiated instances mounted on /tmp (or /var/tmp) can be used.

Second, configure /etc/security/namespace.conf. This file already contains an example configuration which we can use. In our case we will just uncomment the lines corresponding to /tmp and /var/tmp.

 /tmp     /tmp-inst/            level      root,adm 
 /var/tmp /var/tmp/tmp-inst/    level      root,adm

This configuration specifies that /tmp must be polyinstantiated from a subdirectory of /tmp-inst. The third field specifies the method used for polyinstatiation which in our case is based on process MLS level. The last field is a comma-separated list of uids or usernames for whom the polyinstantiation is not performed1. More information about the configuration parameters can be found in /usr/share/doc/pam-1.1.8/txts/README.pam_namespace.

Also ensure that pam_namespace is enabled in the PAM login configuration file. This should already be enabled by default on Red Hat Enterprise Linux systems.

 session    required    pam_namespace.so

Third, setup the correct selinux context. This is a two-step process. In the first step we need to enable the global SELinux boolean for polyinstantiation using the following command:

$ sudo setsebool polyinstantiation_enabled=1

You can verify it worked by using:

$ sudo getsebool polyinstantiation_enabled
polyinstantiation_enabled --> on

In the second step, we need to set the process SELinux context of the polyinstantiated parent directories using the following commands:

$ sudo chcon --reference=/tmp /tmp-inst
$ sudo chcon --reference=/var/tmp/ /var/tmp/tmp-inst

The above commands use the selinux context of the /tmp and /var/tmp directories, respectively, as references and copies them to our polyinstantiated parent directories.

Once the above is done, you can logoff and login, and each non-root user gets their own polyinstantiation of /tmp and /var/tmp directories.

PrivateTmp feature of systemd

Daemons running on systems which use systemd can now use the PrivateTmp feature. This enables a private /tmp directory for each daemon that is not shared by the processes outside of the namespace, however this makes sharing between processes outside the namespace using /tmp impossible. The main difference between polyinstantiated /tmp and PrivateTmp is that the former creates a per-user /tmp directory, while the latter creates a per-deamon or process /tmp.


In conclusion, while polyinstantiation will not prevent every type of attack (caused by flaws in the applications running on the system, or mis-configurations like weak root password, wrong directory/file permissions etc), it is a useful addition to your security toolkit that is straightforward to configure. Polyinstantiation can also be used for other directories such as /home. Some time ago, polyinstantiated /tmp by default was proposed for Fedora, but several issues caused the proposal to be denied.

  1. Default values include the root and the adm user. Since root is a superuser anyway, it does not make any sense to polyinstantiate the /tmp directory for the root user. 


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75 days ago
75 days ago
Cluj-Napoca, România
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Ryabitsev:Travel (Linux) laptop setup

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On his blog, Linux Foundation Director of IT Infrastructure Security Konstantin Ryabitsev has some advice for laptop security when traveling overseas. Some attendees of LinuxCon China in Beijing June 19-20 have asked for his thoughts, so he put together the post, which is good advice, if perhaps overly paranoid for some, no matter what country you might be visiting. "China is not signatory to the "Personal Use Exemption" when it comes to encrypted devices, so bringing a laptop with encrypted hard drive with you is not technically legal. If the border officer does not like you for some reason and has grounds to suspect you are not being truthful about your stated reasons for entering China, you may be asked to decrypt your devices for a search. Failure to do so may result in unpleasantness, and you may be detained or fined merely on the grounds of having an encrypted device when entering the country. (As opposed to, for example, entering a country that is signatory to the personal use exemption, where just having an encrypted device is not grounds for any action. That said, it is never in your interest to make the border officer not like you for some reason. Until you are admitted to the country as a legal alien, the Geneva Convention and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights are pretty much the only legal frameworks protecting you as a person against foreign government action.) It is important to point out that you are extremely unlikely to be penalized for bringing in an encrypted laptop with you to China, as any kind of widespread zealous application of such practice would quickly shut down any business travel to China -- and this is definitely not in the government's interest."
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153 days ago
Cluj-Napoca, România
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Food Nutrition Per Dollar – 44 Micro Nutrients Sorted By Highest Nutrition Rank

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Any Biology Experts think they can understand the biological implications of this data? Email me

Quick Tips To Save Money On Food

Despite Marketing Companies ability to control your perception- Fresh Food is lower cost than Canned, Frozen, Prepared/boxed, Fast Food.

After a half of a decade studying this problem, the math has changed my life.

Consume More-
  • Milk
  • Eggs
  • Romaine Lettuce
  • Kale
  • Potatoes
  • Carrots
  • Beans
  • Peanuts
  • Spinach
  • (Flour?)
  • Butternut Squash
  • Jalapeno Peppers
  • Lentils
  • Canned Tomatoes
Consume Less-

  • Out of Season/Location Fresh Foods
  • Energy Drinks
  • Alcoholic Drinks(sorry not a ton of nutrition in beer + wine)
  • Brand Name Apples
General Results

Best Values- The Math

There are two types of data presented. Nutrition Per Dollar and Nutrition Ratio Total(Sum).

A straight addition of nutrients would yield an unimportant number due to a wildly high amount of Vitamin A in carrots.

The solution was to remove the dimensions of each to find a Nutrient Ratio:

(Ingredient’s Nutrient mg/dollar) / Max Nutrient mg/dollar

This creates a scale from 0 to 1, where 1 is the best value for that Nutrient/$. By removing the dimensions, we can now add these up. If we decided we wanted to weight one nutrient over others, we could use multiplication.

The numbers below are an addition of 37 micronutrients I considered beneficial.

On Data Collection- I nearly always picked the lowest cost option, and obtained nutrition data from here.

Lowest Cost Nutrition

Understanding and implementing top 50 ranked foods is valuable.

Nutrition Ratio Total = Sum of 37 (Nutrient/$ / Highest Nutrient/$). The original Nutrient/$ can be found below.

The Nutrition Ratio Total is good for understanding scale of value. IE: Oranges(1.57) are 3x more Nutritious Per Dollar than Lemons(0.51).

If you havent eaten a specific vegetable before, I’d toss the veggie into something you already enjoy. We started adding Spinach or Kale to our friend rice. After 10 minutes of cooking, it still tastes like my favorite fried rice in the world, but it has Kale.

Frozen food doesnt show up until #19, where Frozen Carrots are 2x more expensive than Fresh Carrots. The lesson here is to reduce/eliminate canned and frozen food. Fresh/Raw foods are typically cheaper.

One more cost saving tip- Replace a $1.69 Red Pepper with Carrots. Just as sweet.

Flour + Cereal- Apparently low fiber and enriched with vitamins help you score pretty well. Monster took a note from them. We sometimes use flour to thicken our soups/stews, but that’s about it.

Here is the Excel Data:

Download the raw data here

Complete Nutrition Per Dollar- 44 More Charts

Hungry? Get Infinity Data Per Dollar, Download the raw data here.

Bio/Med/Health people- I’d like to learn more about this data and implications of it. Please contact me.

How To Eat For 1,000$/year

A half decade of studying this topic and having to cook for my ‘used to be picky’ wife, here is my ultimate guide to eating the most nutritious, healthy, low cost food ever. We aim to eat around 700 Calories Per Dollar and my ‘used to be picky’ wife now prefers our menu over restaurants.

Foods to remember

Protein– Beans, Lentils, Chicken, Eggs, Milk, and potentially discounted meats(turkey,pork/ground beef).
Veggies– Leafy greens, Carrots, and in-season veggies
Carbs– Pick Bread, Rice, Noodles- Don’t buy premade boxed rice/noodles.
Spices– Reward yourself. By eating at home you can borderline go wild on spices, sauces, etc… I’ll stay within ~1$ on things like, cream of chicken, a variety of spices, dressing, BBQ sauces, etc…

Make The Food Taste Good

80% of the taste is Easy

Salt, Lemon/Lime/Vinegar, Sugar, Butter/Oil/Fats, and umami taste good.

Add each slowly and taste like you would testing saltiness.

The challenging 20%

Play around with texture, how you cook each type of food. Mess around with timing when you add spices/sauces.

My preferred texture, usually uses this method to cooking anything- Cook chicken on medium-high ~4 minutes, flip, 4 minutes, (optional deglaze), throw in veggies, cook everything for ~8 minutes. Serve on top of the carb. Change around timing when you add spices and sauces, the order will slightly change the finished product.

Everything tastes good. There are almost 0 foul flavors. Just make sure you Salt, Add an Acid, Add sweetness, Fats, and Umami (the 5 things up top).

Grocery Shop

I go to the lowest cost store in my area with a printed out grocery list of what we are eating for the week(we cycle through 28 recipes).

Writing the list was a solid 1 hour job to type everything out and plan it. We even sorted by isle. However after 5 years of using it, grocery shopping takes less than 15 minutes including checkout.

Pick fresh veggies, chicken, eggs, milk. Our list is more specific but we often will grab low cost, in-season foods. When in doubt- You are still saving money not eating out, and all food will taste good.

Buy fresh instead of canned, frozen. Avoid processed rice/noodles.

Need Ideas?

  1. Go on Google
  2. type in a protein a veggie and a carb, IE:

    Chicken Rice Peas

There will be a recipe for it. And since all food tastes good, it probably will too.


Avoid Fast Food, Restaurants, Boxed Food, Canned Food, Frozen Food, Processed Food. (sorry, I just really want to save you money.)

Even Clif Bars on sale for 1$ off were less than 20g Protein Per Dollar.

Marketing is Crooked

You were told, McDonalds was the cheapest, most nutritious food. How did that 440 Calorie Per Dollar propaganda spread? Today its 2-3x more expensive than anything we eat.

How much did McDonald’s pay The Telegraph to write the article “McDouble is ‘cheapest and most nutritious food in human history'” ?

You were told Prepared Foods are cheaper than fresh food.

Nice move Marketing Companies. You got away with it for, ~20 years?

After years of studying cost effective eating- Healthy, fresh foods are almost always cheaper than anything a company prepares and re-sells.

We understand the convenience factor of having food prepared for us. That has value.

However, Marketing Companies pushed the idea their foods are low cost. I thought I was saving money by eating canned veggies.

We finally have data that can shut those rumors down.

Next Efficiency

This project took months, planning the project, getting reliable data formatted well, and 2 weekends at the grocery store buying literally every veggie and fruit, excel fun, and trying to wrap my head around explaining 40+ data sets.

Next up- I am bumping up to weekly articles. Fluids Per Dollar, Caffeine Per Second, Should You Shop For Gas, Dog Food Per Dollar, an update to Paper Products Per Dollar, Best College Degrees, Caffeine Per Second, Caffeine Per Second, and more. 😛

I’ve really enjoyed studying time and will focus on a major Protein Per Second article. Protein is weird since it often needs to be prepared. There are obvious things like Whey protein that would top the list, but I think it would be fascinating to compare cooking eggs and McDonalds.

And… Don’t worry, I’ve already started thinking about the linear algebra to calculate The Most Efficient Meal and Efficient Daily Diet.

I need to know people want Efficiency, Show your support by sharing this article. Be the person to save your friends $10,000s. I need to know if I should keep going. Please Share.

The post Food Nutrition Per Dollar – 44 Micro Nutrients Sorted By Highest Nutrition Rank appeared first on Efficiency Is Everything.

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162 days ago
Cluj-Napoca, România
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